ADP5034 Analog Devices, ADP5034 Datasheet - Page 17
Manufacturer Part Number
Dual 3 MHz, 1200mA Buck Regulator with Two 300 mA LDOs
BUCK1 AND BUCK2
The buck uses a fixed frequency and high speed current mode
architecture. The buck operates with an input voltage of 2.3 V
to 5.5 V.
The buck output voltage is set through external resistor
dividers, shown in Figure 47 for BUCK1. The output voltage
can optionally be factory programmed to default values as
indicated in the Ordering Guide section. In this event, R1 and
R2 are not needed, and FB1 can be left unconnected. In all
cases, VOUT1 must be connected to the output capacitor. FB1
is 0.5 V.
The bucks operate with a fixed frequency, current mode PWM
control architecture at medium to high loads for high efficiency
but shift to a power save mode (PSM) control scheme at light
loads to lower the regulation power losses. When operating in
fixed frequency PWM mode, the duty cycle of the integrated
switches is adjusted and regulates the output voltage. When
operating in PSM at light loads, the output voltage is controlled
in a hysteretic manner, with higher output voltage ripple. During
part of this time, the converter is able to stop switching and
enters an idle mode, which improves conversion efficiency.
In PWM mode, the bucks operate at a fixed frequency of 3 MHz
set by an internal oscillator. At the start of each oscillator cycle,
the pFET switch is turned on, sending a positive voltage across
the inductor. Current in the inductor increases until the current
sense signal crosses the peak inductor current threshold that
turns off the pFET switch and turns on the nFET synchronous
rectifier. This sends a negative voltage across the inductor,
causing the inductor current to decrease. The synchronous
rectifier stays on for the rest of the cycle. The buck regulates the
output voltage by adjusting the peak inductor current threshold.
Power Save Mode (PSM)
The bucks smoothly transition to PSM operation when the load
current decreases below the PSM current threshold. When
either of the bucks enters PSM, an offset is induced in the PWM
regulation level, which makes the output voltage rise. When the
output voltage reaches a level approximately 1.5% above the
PWM regulation level, PWM operation is turned off. At this
point, both power switches are off, and the buck enters an idle
mode. The output capacitor discharges until the output voltage
falls to the PWM regulation voltage, at which point the device
Figure 47. BUCK1 External Output Voltage Setting
Rev. A | Page 17 of 28
drives the inductor to make the output voltage rise again to the
upper threshold. This process is repeated while the load current
is below the PSM current threshold.
The ADP5034 has a dedicated MODE pin controlling the PSM
and PWM operation. A high logic level applied to the MODE
pin forces both bucks to operate in PWM mode. A logic level
low sets the bucks to operate in auto PSM/PWM.
PSM Current Threshold
The PSM current threshold is set to100 mA. The bucks employ
a scheme that enables this current to remain accurately
controlled, independent of input and output voltage levels. This
scheme also ensures that there is very little hysteresis between
the PSM current threshold for entry to and exit from the PSM.
The PSM current threshold is optimized for excellent efficiency
over all load currents.
Oscillator/Phasing of Inductor Switching
The ADP5034 ensures that both bucks operate at the same
switching frequency when both bucks are in PWM mode.
Additionally, the ADP5034 ensures that when both bucks are in
PWM mode, they operate out of phase, whereby the Buck2
pFET starts conducting exactly half a clock period after the
BUCK1 pFET starts conducting.
The bucks include frequency foldback to prevent output current
runaway on a hard short. When the voltage at the feedback pin
falls below half the target output voltage, indicating the possi-
bility of a hard short at the output, the switching frequency is
reduced to half the internal oscillator frequency. The reduction
in the switching frequency allows more time for the inductor to
discharge, preventing a runaway of output current.
The bucks have an internal soft start function that ramps the
output voltage in a controlled manner upon startup, thereby
limiting the inrush current. This prevents possible input voltage
drops when a battery or a high impedance power source is
connected to the input of the converter.
Each buck has protection circuitry to limit the amount of
positive current flowing through the pFET switch and the
amount of negative current flowing through the synchronous
rectifier. The positive current limit on the power switch limits
the amount of current that can flow from the input to the
output. The negative current limit prevents the inductor
current from reversing direction and flowing out of the load.
100% Duty Operation
With a drop in input voltage, or with an increase in load
current, the buck may reach a limit where, even with the pFET
switch on 100% of the time, the output voltage drops below the
desired output voltage. At this limit, the buck transitions to a
mode where the pFET switch stays on 100% of the time. When