PIC16F688

Manufacturer Part NumberPIC16F688
ManufacturerMicrochip Technology Inc.
PIC16F688 datasheet
 


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Page 131/202:

Read-Modify-Write Operations

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12.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
The PIC16F688 instruction set is highly orthogonal and
is comprised of three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
Each PIC16 instruction is a 14-bit word divided into an
opcode, which specifies the instruction type and one or
more operands, which further specify the operation of
the instruction. The formats for each of the categories
is presented in Figure 12-1, while the various opcode
fields are summarized in Table 12-1.
Table 12-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM
TM
assembler.
For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file
register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination
designator. The file register designator specifies which
file register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field
designator, which selects the bit affected by the
operation, while ‘f’ represents the address of the file in
which the bit is located.
For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an
8-bit or 11-bit constant, or literal value.
One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods;
for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, this gives a
nominal instruction execution time of 1 μs. All
instructions are executed within a single instruction
cycle, unless a conditional test is true, or the program
counter is changed as a result of an instruction. When
this occurs, the execution takes two instruction cycles,
with the second cycle executed as a NOP.
All instruction examples use the format ‘0xhh’ to
represent a hexadecimal number, where ‘h’ signifies a
hexadecimal digit.
12.1

Read-Modify-Write Operations

Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of
the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (R-M-W)
operation. The register is read, the data is modified,
and the result is stored according to either the instruc-
tion, or the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation
is performed on a register even if the instruction writes
to that register.
For example, a CLRF
PORTA instruction will read
PORTA, clear all the data bits, then write the result back
to PORTA. This example would have the unintended
consequence of clearing the condition that set the RAIF
flag.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F688
TABLE 12-1:
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
Description
f
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
W
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1).
The assembler will generate code with x = 0.
It is the recommended form of use for
compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
d
Destination select; d = 0: store result in
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1.
PC
Program Counter
TO
Time-out bit
C
Carry bit
DC
Digit carry bit
Z
Zero bit
Power-down bit
PD
FIGURE 12-1:
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8
7
6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
8
7
OPCODE
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
10
OPCODE
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
DS41203D-page 129
,
W
0
0
0
0