CA3059

Manufacturer Part NumberCA3059
DescriptionZERO VOLTAGE CROSSING SWITCH
ManufacturerIntersil
CA3059 datasheet
 


Specifications of CA3059

Rohs StatusRoHS non-compliant  
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No. AN6182.2
October 2000
FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCHES (CA3059 AND CA3079)
Authors: A.C.N. Sheng, G.J. Granieri, J. Yellin, and T. McNulty
CA3059 and CA3079 zero-voltage switches are monolithic
integrated circuits designed primarily for use as trigger cir-
cuits for thyristors in many highly diverse AC power control
and power switching applications. These integrated circuit
switches operate from an AC input voltage of 24, 120, 208 to
230, or 277V at 50, 60, or 400Hz.
The CA3059 and CA3079 are supplied in a 14 terminal dual-
in-line plastic package.
Zero-voltage switches (ZVS) are particularly well suited for
use as thyristor trigger circuits. These switches trigger the
thyristors at zero-voltage points in the supply voltage cycle.
Consequently, transient load current surges and radio
frequency interference (RFI) are substantially reduced. In
addition, use of the zero-voltage switches also reduces the
rate of change of on state current (di/dt) in the thyristor being
triggered, an important consideration in the operation of
thyristors. These switches can be adapted for use in a variety
of control functions by use of an internal differential
comparator to detect the difference between two externally
developed voltages. In addition, the availability of numerous
terminal connections to internal circuit points greatly
increases circuit flexibility and further expands the types of AC
power control applications to which these integrated circuits
may be adapted. The excellent versatility of the zero-voltage
switches is demonstrated by the fact that these circuits have
been used to provide transient free temperature control in self
cleaning ovens, to control gun muzzle temperature in low
temperature environments, to provide sequential switching of
heating elements in warm air furnaces, to switch traffic signal
lights at street intersections, and to effect other widely
different AC power control functions.
Functional Description
Zero-voltage switches are multistage circuits that employ a
diode limiter, a zero crossing (threshold) detector, an on/off
sensing amplifier (differential comparator), and a Darlington
output driver (thyristor gating circuit) to provide the basic
switching action. The DC operating voltages for these stages is
provided by an internal power supply that has sufficient current
capability to drive external circuit elements, such as transistors
and other integrated circuits. An important feature of the zero-
voltage switches is that the output trigger pulses can be applied
directly to the gate of a triac or a silicon controlled rectifier
(SCR). The CA3059 features an interlock (protection) circuit
Intersil Intelligent Power
that inhibits the application of these pulses to the thyristor in the
event that the external sensor should be inadvertently opened
or shorted. An external inhibit connection (terminal No. 1) is
also available so that an external signal can be used to inhibit
the output drive. This feature is not included in the CA3079;
otherwise, the three integrated circuit zero-voltage switches are
electrically identical.
Overall Circuit Operation
Figure 1 shows the functional interrelation of the zero-volt-
age switch, the external sensor, the thyristor being triggered,
and the load elements in an on/off type of AC power control
system. As shown, each of the zero-voltage switches incor-
porates four functional blocks as follows:
Limiter Power Supply - Permits operation directly from an
AC line.
Differential On/Off Sensing Amplifier - Tests the condition of
external sensors or command signals. Hysteresis or proportional
control capability may easily be implemented in this section.
Zero Crossing Detector - Synchronizes the output pulses
of the circuit at the time when the AC cycle is at a zero-volt-
age point and thereby eliminates radio frequency interfer-
ence (RFI) when used with resistive loads.
Triac Gating Circuit - Provides high current pulses to the
gate of the power controlling thyristor.
In addition, the CA3059 provides the following important
auxiliary functions (shown in Figure 1):
1. A built-in protection circuit that may be actuated to remove
drive from the triac if the sensor opens or shorts.
2. Thyristor firing may be inhibited through the action of an
internal diode gate connected to terminal 1.
3. High power DC comparator operation is provided by over-
riding the action of the zero crossing detector. This over-
ride is accomplished by connecting terminal 12 to terminal
7. Gate current to the thyristor is continuous when terminal
13 is positive with respect to terminal 9.
Figure 2 shows the detailed circuit diagram for the integrated
circuit zero-voltage switches. (The diagrams shown in Figures
1 and 2 are representative of all three zero-voltage switches,
i.e., the CA3059 and CA3079; the shaded areas indicate the
circuitry that is not included in the CA3079.)
1

CA3059 Summary of contents

  • Page 1

    ... These integrated circuit switches operate from an AC input voltage of 24, 120, 208 to 230, or 277V at 50, 60, or 400Hz. The CA3059 and CA3079 are supplied terminal dual- in-line plastic package. Zero-voltage switches (ZVS) are particularly well suited for use as thyristor trigger circuits. These switches trigger the thyristors at zero-voltage points in the supply voltage cycle ...

  • Page 2

    ... NTC SENSOR * NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT AC INPUT VOLTAGE (50/60 OR 400Hz) (V AC) 24 120 208/230 277 NOTE: Circuitry within shaded areas, not included in CA3079 See chart IC = Internal connection - DO NOT USE (CA3079 only) FIGURE 1. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAMS OF THE ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCHES CA3059 AND CA3079 LINE INPUT ...

  • Page 3

    ... CA3059, the output of the fail-safe circuit must be “high”. Under these conditions, the thyristor (triac or SCR) is triggered when the line voltage is essen- tially zero volts ...

  • Page 4

    OPERATION RMS 300 t dv/dt , (POSITIVE ) P 200 t dv/dt , (NEGATIVE ) N 100 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 EXTERNAL CAPACITANCE ( F) FIGURE 5A. 700 120V , 60Hz OPERATION RMS 600 ...

  • Page 5

    ... Protection Circuit A special feature of the CA3059 zero-voltage switch is the inclusion of an interlock type of circuit. This circuit removes power from the load by interrupting the thyristor gate drive if the sensor either shorts or opens. However, use of this cir- cuit places certain constraints upon the user. Specifi ...

  • Page 6

    ... AC 60Hz 100 F + 15V DC - 0.001 F FIGURE 11. CA3059 ON-OFF CONTROLLER WITH HYSTERESIS If a significant amount (greater than hysteresis is required, then the circuit shown in Figure 12 may be employed. In this configuration, external transistor Q can be used to provide an auxiliary timed delay function 8.3ms 8.3ms ...

  • Page 7

    ... SET TEMP 14 100 F CA3059 13 NTC THERM- 8 ISTOR 7 120V 60Hz 68K 1/2 W TYPE 2N6975 FIGURE 12. CA3059 ON/OFF CONTROLLER WITH CON- 10K 8 1 10K 7 SENSOR 0.001 F 10K “HIGH” REFERENCE 7 DIFF. (HR) AMPL. SIGNAL 8 INPUT DIFF. “LOW” AMPL. 1 REFERENCE (LR) Application Note 6182 R ...

  • Page 8

    ... FIGURE 15A. V TRIAC TRIAC OFF ON t FIGURE 15B. FIGURE 15. USE OF THE CA3059 IN A TYPICAL HEATING CON- TROL WITH PROPORTIONAL CONTROL: A. Application Note 6182 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, AND B. WAVEFORM OF VOLTAGE AT ERMINAL 13 FIGURE 16. EFFECT OF VARIATIONS IN TIME CONSTANT ELE- sensor and val- MENTS ON PERIOD ...

  • Page 9

    V V PIN 9 PIN 9 V PIN 13 V LOAD 120V 60Hz and scorching of any type is minimized. 10K 220V 8W 60Hz ZVS 100 16V + 15V T 8 ...

  • Page 10

    ... SENSOR CA3086 FIGURE 19. USE OF THE CA3059 TOGETHER WITH 3086 FOR SWITCHING INDUCTIVE LOADS Application Note 6182 120V AC 60Hz 100 F + 15V DC - (max Provision of Negative Gate Current Triacs trigger with optimum sensitivity when the polarity of the gate voltage and the voltage at the main terminal 2 are similar (I+ and II- modes) ...

  • Page 11

    ... SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) FIGURE 21. POWER SUPPLY REGULATION OF THE CA3059 WITH A 300 SENSOR (600 VALUES OF SERIES RESISTOR. Although positive temperature coefficient (PTC) sensors rated at 5k are available, the existing sensors in ovens are usually of a much lower value. The circuit shown in Figure 22 is offered to accommodate these inexpensive metal wound sensors ...

  • Page 12

    ... THERMISTORS LIMIT SWITCHES ISOLATED INPUT FIGURE 25. BASIC INTERFACING TECHNIQUES: A. DIRECT IN- Sensor Isolation In many applications, electrical isolation of the sensor from the AC input line is desirable. Several isolation techniques are shown in Figures 26, 27, and 28 CA3059 100 F - NTC 15VDC 8 THERM- ISTOR 10K 2 5 100 F 13 ...

  • Page 13

    ... AC power lines. The pulse transformer T sensor from terminal No the triac Y T isolates the CA3059 from the power lines. Capacitor C 2 shifts the phase of the output pulse at terminal No order to retard the gate pulse delivered to triac Y ...

  • Page 14

    ... FIGURE 29. CA3059 ON/OFF TEMP. CONTROLLER Application Note 6182 For precise temperature control applications, the proportional control technique with synchronous switching is employed. The transfer curve for this type of controller is shown in Figure 30B. In this case, the duty cycle of the power supplied to the load is varied with the demand for heat required and the thermal time constant (inertia) of the system ...

  • Page 15

    ... In the circuit shown in Figure 32, the ramp voltage is generated when the capacitor C charges through resistors R and the ramp is determined by resistors R 2 120VAC 100 F + 60Hz - 15VDC V FIGURE 33. CA3059 PROPORTIONAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER 0.5A 10K 3AG 0 100 3 6.8K ...

  • Page 16

    ... F + TYPE 50VDC 1.8K - IN914 C 2 COMMON All Resistors 1/2 Watt Pin Connections Refer to Unless Otherwise Specified the CA3059 FIGURE 32. RAMP GENERATOR When the voltage across C reaches approximately 32V, the diac 2 switches and turns on the 2N3904 transistor and 1N914 diodes 120VAC ...

  • Page 17

    V of triac switched on by the current through R 2 ing current of the sensitive gate triac results in dissipation of only opposed to 10 ...

  • Page 18

    ... For proportional operation open terminals 9, 10 and 11, and connect positive ramp voltage to terminal 9. 2. SCR selected for I GT FIGURE 39. CA3059 INTEGRAL CYCLE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER THAT FEATURES A PROTECTION CIRCUIT AND NO HALF CYCLING EFFECT Application Note 6182 easily calibrated, and containing less costly system wiring. ...

  • Page 19

    SW1 L1 OFF 220 ZVS 13 NTC 8 SENSOR FIGURE 37. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF BASIC OVEN CONTROL Integral Cycle Temperature Controller (No half cycling temperature controller ...

  • Page 20

    The CA3130 is an ideal choice for the type of comparator cir- cuit shown in Figure 41 because it can “compare” low voltages (such as those generated by a thermocouple) in the proximity of the negative supply rail. Adjustment of ...

  • Page 21

    ... Because 400Hz power is used almost universally in aircraft systems, Intersil offers a complete line of triacs rated for 400Hz applications. Use of the Intersil zero-voltage switch in conjunction with these 400Hz triacs results in a minimum of RFI, which is especially important in aircraft ...

  • Page 22

    ... Q L 1/2W voltage switch, when used with Intersil thyristors, involves switching traffic control lamps. In this type of application essential that a triac withstand a current surge of the lamp load on a continuous basis. This surge results from the difference between the cold and hot resistance of the tungsten filament. If ...

  • Page 23

    ... For Example 40A TRIAC, then R 2 FIGURE 52. ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCH TRANSIENT FREE SWITCH CONTROLLER IN WHICH POWER IS APPLIED TO THE LOAD Application Note 6182 10K ZVS must be Decreased to Supply Sufficient I 1 10K CA3059 must be Decreased to Supply Sufficient 10K R (NOTE 100 Y 2 (NOTE (NOTE1 ...

  • Page 24

    CC The arrangement describe can also be used for a synchro- nous, sequential traffic controller system by addition of one triac, one gating transistor, a “divide-by-three” logic circuit, and ...

  • Page 25

    100 F 15VDC 4 PB1 120V AC 2.7K 60Hz 6 1/3 CD4007A 3 1/3 CD4007A FIGURE 54. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A POWER ONE SHOT CONTROL USING A ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCH ...

  • Page 26

    ... VOLTAGE DETECTOR 2 9 10K PART OF CA3068 NO. 1 100 RAMP CONTROL 1 MEG 10K RAMP GENERATOR 50K SENSOR CA3086 14 NO TRIAC TURNS ON 8.3ms TIME 5K 5K 20K 20K 5. CA3059 10K 0.1 F 10K 26 4 LINE 120VAC INPUT 60Hz LOAD ZERO CURRENT 8 DETECTOR 4 PART OF 5 CA3068 NO ...

  • Page 27

    ... V R FIGURE 53. DIFFERENTIAL COMPARATOR USING THE CA3059 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCH When the zero-voltage switch is connected in the DC mode, the drive current for terminal 4 can be determined from a curve of the external load current as a function of DC voltage from terminals 2 and 7. Of course, if additional output current ...

  • Page 28

    ... CA3240E. These positive transitions are fed into the CA3059, which is used as a latching circuit and zero crossing triac driver. When a positive pulse occurs at terminal No the CA3240E, the triac is turned on and held on by the CA3059 and associated positive feedback circuitry (51k resis- tor and 36k /42k voltage divider) ...

  • Page 29

    ... The DC logic circuitry provides the low level electrical signal that dictates the state of the load. For temperature controls, the DC log- ic circuitry includes a temperature sensor for feedback. The Intersil integrated circuit zero-voltage switch, when operated in the DC mode with some additional circuitry, can replace the DC logic cir- cuitry for temperature controls ...

  • Page 30

    ZVS 100 + OCI 100 OCI-5 OCI ZVS 100 ...

  • Page 31

    ... Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and reli- able. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use ...