F65510

Manufacturer Part NumberF65510
DescriptionControllers, Flat Panel VGA Controller
ManufacturerIntel Corporation
F65510 datasheet
 
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®
color CRT monitors, the 65510 provides several
proprietary features to maximize display quality on
monochrome flat panels.
Registers, the 65510 provides the flexibility to
interface to a wide range of flat panels and provide
full compatibility transparently to application
software.
RGB Color To Gray Scale Reduction
The 18 bits of color palette data from the VGA
standard color lookup table (CLUT) are reduced to
6 bits for 64 gray scales via one of three selectable
RGB color to gray scales reduction techniques:
1) NTSC Weighting: 5/16 Red 9/16 Green 2/16 Blue
2) Equal Weighting: 5/16 Red 6/16 Green 5/16 Blue
3) Green Only: 6 bits of Green only
NTSC is the most common weighting, which is
used in television broadcasting. Equal weighting
increases the weighting for Blue, which is important
for applications such as Microsoft Windows 3.x
which often uses Blue for background colors.
Green Only is useful for replicating on a flat panel
the display of software optimized for IBM's
monochrome monitors which use the six Green bits
of palette data.
Gray Scale Algorithm
A
proprietary
polynomial-based
Control (FRC) and dithering algorithm in the
65510's hardware generates 64 gray levels on
monochrome panels. The FRC technique simulates
16 gray levels on monochrome panels by turning
the pixels on and off over several frames in time.
The dithering technique increases the number of
gray scales from 16 to 64 by altering the pattern of
gray scales in adjacent pixels. By programming the
polynomial (an 8-bit value in Extension Register
XR6E), the FRC algorithm may be adjusted to
reduce flicker without increasing the panel's vertical
refresh rate. The persistence (response time) of the
pixels varies among panel manufacturers and
models.
By re-programming the polynomial by
trial-and-error while viewing the display, the FRC
algorithm can be adjusted to match the persistence
of the particular panel. With this technique, the
65510 produces 64 flicker-free gray scales on the
latest
fast
response
"mouse
compensated monochrome STN LCDs.
alternate method of reducing flicker -- increasing
the panel's vertical refresh rate -- has several
drawbacks. As the vertical refresh rate increases,
the panel's power consumption increases, ghosting
(cross-talk) increases, and contrast decreases.
Revision 0.7
Vertical & Horizontal Compensation
Vertical & Horizontal Compensation are program-
Via its Extension
mable features that adjust the display to completely
fill the flat panel display. Vertical Compensation
increases the usable display area when running
lower resolution software on a higher resolution
panel. Unlike CRT monitors, flat panels have a
fixed number of scan lines (e.g., 200, 400, or 480).
Lower resolution software run on a higher
resolution panel only partially fills the usable
display area. For instance, 350-line EGA software
displayed on a 480-line panel would leave 130
blank lines at the bottom of the display, and 400-
line VGA text or Mode 13 images would leave 80
blank lines at the bottom. The 65510 offers the
following Vertical Compensation techniques to
increase the useable screen area:
Vertical Centering displays text or graphics images
in the center of the flat panel, with a border of
unused area at the top and bottom of the display.
Automatic Vertical Centering automatically adjusts
the Display Start address such that the unused area
at the top of the display equals the unused area at
the bottom.
enables the Display Start address to be set (via
programming the Extension Registers) such that
text or graphics images can be positioned anywhere
on the display.
Frame
Rate
Line replication (referred to as "stretching")
duplicates every Nth display line (where N is
programmable), thus stretching text characters and
graphic images an adjustable amount. The display
can be stretched to completely fill the flat panel
area. Double scanning, a form of line replication
where every line is replicated, is useful for running
200 line software on a 400 line panel.
Blank line insertion, inserts N blank lines (where N
is programmable) between each line of text
characters. Thus text can be evenly spaced to fill
the entire panel display area without altering the
height and shape of the text characters. Blank line
insertion can be used in text mode only.
Tall Fonts™ uses a non-VGA standard font such
that text fills almost all lines on the flat panel and
all lines of text are the same size. For example, an
8x19 font would fill 475 lines on a 480-line panel.
quick"
film
Each of these Vertical Compensation techniques
The
can be controlled by programming the Extension
Registers. Each Vertical Compensation feature can
be individually disabled, enabled and adjusted. A
combination of Vertical Compensation features can
be used by adjusting the features' priority order.
8
Introduction
Non-Automatic Vertical Centering
Preliminary 65510