ATmega168A Atmel Corporation, ATmega168A Datasheet - Page 242

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ATmega168A

Manufacturer Part Number
ATmega168A
Description
Manufacturer
Atmel Corporation
Datasheets

Specifications of ATmega168A

Flash (kbytes)
16 Kbytes
Pin Count
32
Max. Operating Frequency
20 MHz
Cpu
8-bit AVR
# Of Touch Channels
16
Hardware Qtouch Acquisition
No
Max I/o Pins
23
Ext Interrupts
24
Usb Speed
No
Usb Interface
No
Spi
2
Twi (i2c)
1
Uart
1
Graphic Lcd
No
Video Decoder
No
Camera Interface
No
Adc Channels
8
Adc Resolution (bits)
10
Adc Speed (ksps)
15
Analog Comparators
1
Resistive Touch Screen
No
Temp. Sensor
Yes
Crypto Engine
No
Sram (kbytes)
1
Eeprom (bytes)
512
Self Program Memory
YES
Dram Memory
No
Nand Interface
No
Picopower
No
Temp. Range (deg C)
-40 to 85
I/o Supply Class
1.8 to 5.5
Operating Voltage (vcc)
1.8 to 5.5
Fpu
No
Mpu / Mmu
no / no
Timers
3
Output Compare Channels
6
Input Capture Channels
1
Pwm Channels
6
32khz Rtc
Yes
Calibrated Rc Oscillator
Yes

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22.8
8271D–AVR–05/11
Multi-master Systems and Arbitration
Note that data is transmitted both from Master to Slave and vice versa. The Master must instruct
the Slave what location it wants to read, requiring the use of the MT mode. Subsequently, data
must be read from the Slave, implying the use of the MR mode. Thus, the transfer direction must
be changed. The Master must keep control of the bus during all these steps, and the steps
should be carried out as an atomical operation. If this principle is violated in a multi master sys-
tem, another Master can alter the data pointer in the EEPROM between steps 2 and 3, and the
Master will read the wrong data location. Such a change in transfer direction is accomplished by
transmitting a REPEATED START between the transmission of the address byte and reception
of the data. After a REPEATED START, the Master keeps ownership of the bus. The following
figure shows the flow in this transfer.
Figure 22-19. Combining Several TWI Modes to Access a Serial EEPROM
If multiple masters are connected to the same bus, transmissions may be initiated simultane-
ously by one or more of them. The TWI standard ensures that such situations are handled in
such a way that one of the masters will be allowed to proceed with the transfer, and that no data
will be lost in the process. An example of an arbitration situation is depicted below, where two
masters are trying to transmit data to a Slave Receiver.
Figure 22-20. An Arbitration Example
Several different scenarios may arise during arbitration, as described below:
• Two or more masters are performing identical communication with the same Slave. In this
• Two or more masters are accessing the same Slave with different data or direction bit. In this
case, neither the Slave nor any of the masters will know about the bus contention.
case, arbitration will occur, either in the READ/WRITE bit or in the data bits. The masters trying
to output a one on SDA while another Master outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Losing
masters will switch to not addressed Slave mode or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new
START condition, depending on application software action.
S
S = START
SDA
SCL
Transmitted from master to slave
SLA+W
ATmega48A/PA/88A/PA/168A/PA/328/P
TRANSMITTER
Device 1
MASTER
A
Master Transmitter
ADDRESS
TRANSMITTER
Device 2
MASTER
Device 3
RECEIVER
A
SLAVE
Rs = REPEATED START
Rs
Transmitted from slave to master
........
SLA+R
Device n
V
CC
A
R1
Master Receiver
DATA
R2
P = STOP
A
P
242

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