ATmega168P Atmel Corporation, ATmega168P Datasheet - Page 13

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ATmega168P

Manufacturer Part Number
ATmega168P
Description
Manufacturer
Atmel Corporation
Datasheets

Specifications of ATmega168P

Flash (kbytes)
16 Kbytes
Pin Count
32
Max. Operating Frequency
20 MHz
Cpu
8-bit AVR
# Of Touch Channels
16
Hardware Qtouch Acquisition
No
Max I/o Pins
23
Ext Interrupts
24
Usb Speed
No
Usb Interface
No
Spi
2
Twi (i2c)
1
Uart
1
Graphic Lcd
No
Video Decoder
No
Camera Interface
No
Adc Channels
8
Adc Resolution (bits)
10
Adc Speed (ksps)
15
Analog Comparators
1
Resistive Touch Screen
No
Temp. Sensor
Yes
Crypto Engine
No
Sram (kbytes)
1
Eeprom (bytes)
512
Self Program Memory
YES
Dram Memory
No
Nand Interface
No
Picopower
Yes
Temp. Range (deg C)
-40 to 85
I/o Supply Class
1.8 to 5.5
Operating Voltage (vcc)
1.8 to 5.5
Fpu
No
Mpu / Mmu
no / no
Timers
3
Output Compare Channels
6
Input Capture Channels
1
Pwm Channels
6
32khz Rtc
Yes
Calibrated Rc Oscillator
Yes

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7.4.1
7.5
8025M–AVR–6/11
Stack Pointer
The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These reg-
isters are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect
address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in
Figure 7-3.
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement,
automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing
return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. Note that the Stack is implemented as
growing from higher to lower memory locations. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the
top of the Stack. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine
and Interrupt Stacks are located. A Stack PUSH command will decrease the Stack Pointer.
The Stack in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are
executed or interrupts are enabled. Initial Stack Pointer value equals the last address of the
internal SRAM and the Stack Pointer must be set to point above start of the SRAM, see
8-3 on page
See
Table 7-1.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementa-
tions of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register
will not be present.
X-register
Y-register
Z-register
Instruction
PUSH
CALL
ICALL
RCALL
POP
RET
RETI
Table 7-1
19.
The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
Stack Pointer instructions
Stack pointer
Decremented by 1
Decremented by 2
Incremented by 1
Incremented by 2
for Stack Pointer details.
15
7
R27 (0x1B)
15
7
R29 (0x1D)
15
7
R31 (0x1F)
Description
Data is pushed onto the stack
Return address is pushed onto the stack with a subroutine call or
interrupt
Data is popped from the stack
Return address is popped from the stack with return from
subroutine or return from interrupt
XH
YH
ZH
0
0
0
7
R26 (0x1A)
7
R28 (0x1C)
7
R30 (0x1E)
ATmega48P/88P/168P
Figure
7-3.
XL
YL
ZL
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure
13

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